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Stages of the fall of Andalusia

Stages of the fall of Andalusia:

★The division of Andalusia :

Andalusia became chaotic after the fall of the Umayyad Caliphate in 132 AH, and in 385 AH every prominent family or sect declared independence from its city and its surroundings; This led to the division of Andalusia into twenty one states. To begin a period of weakness during it. Where conflict and disagreement spread among the kings of the sects; The Spanish kingdoms took advantage of this weakness and, under the leadership of King Ferdinand I, seized several Islamic cities.

★ Fall of Andalusian cities:

In the year 748 AD, the city of Pamplona in the north of the country fell, then Barcelona in 985 AD, Santiago in 997 AD, and Lyon five years after the fall of Santiago, the city of Salamanca in 1055 CE, the city of Qalamaria in 1064 CE, and Madrid in 1084 AD. [2] the fall of Toledo after the fall of Toledo In 1085 AD, a delegation of Muslim scholars headed to the Almoravid dynasty in the Far Maghreb. To demand the cessation of the advance of the Spaniards, the founder of the Almoravid dynasty Yusuf bin Tashfin agreed to the request of the delegation, and despite the victory that the Almoravids achieved over the Christians in the Battle of (Al-Zallaqah) in 1086AD, they failed to restore Toledo.

★The collapse of the Almoravid rule:

The rule of the Almoravids collapsed in Andalusia after their failure to defend the Andalusian city of Zaragoza, and the emergence of the revolution in Morocco, which carried negative results for them. Then the rule turned to the Almohads who defended Andalusia, and their rule continued until the emergence of the punishment site in 1212 AD, where they were defeated and ended Their rule.

★ Fall of Granada:

On January 2, 1492 A.H., corresponding to 897 AH, the presence of Muslims in Andalusia ended in coincidence with the fall of the city of Granada, after many wars by the Christian northern kingdoms over the Andalusian gaps, which were called the wars of recovery, and Granada fell when the King Abu Abdullah Al-Sagheer signed a surrender treaty With Ferdinand and Isabella the two Catholic monarchs, where the Islamic caliphate ended.

★ Andalusia today:

The countries of Andalusia today represent the states of Spain and Portugal named on the Iberian peninsula, and its area - that is, the peninsula - reaches approximately six hundred thousand kilometers, and is located in the southwest of Europe, bordered to the north by France, to the east and southeast by the Mediterranean, and to the north and west And southwestern Atlantic Ocean.

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